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Information about Iraq: People | Leaders | Flag
History | Government | Geography | Economy

People (prior to 2003)

noun: Iraqi(s)
adjective: Iraqi

Population (2002 est.):

Almost 75% of Iraq's population live in the flat, alluvial plain stretching southeast toward Baghdad and Basrah to the Persian Gulf. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers carry about 70 million cubic meters of silt annually to the delta. Known in ancient times as Mesopotamia, the region is the legendary locale of the Garden of Eden. The ruins of Ur, Babylon, and other ancient cities are here.

Iraq's two largest ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds. Other distinct groups are Turkomans, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Iranians, Lurs, and Armenians. Arabic is the most commonly spoken language. Kurdish is spoken in the north, and English is the most commonly spoken Western language.

Most Iraqi Muslims are members of the Shi'a sect, but there is a large Sunni population as well, made up of both Arabs and Kurds. Small communities of Christians, Jews, Bahais, Mandaeans, and Yezidis also exist. Most Kurds are Sunni Muslim but differ from their Arab neighbors in language, dress, and customs.

Annual growth rate (2002 est.):

Ethnic groups:
Arab 75%-80%, Kurd 15%-20%, Turkman, Chaldean, Assyrian, or others less than 5%.

Shia Muslim 60%, Sunni Muslim 32%-37%, Christian 3%, Jewish and Yezidi less than 1%.

Arabic, Kurdish, Assyrian, Armenian.

Age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 58%; Male: 70.7%; Female: 45% (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate--57.61 deaths/1,000 (2002 est.). Life expectancy--67.38 yrs.

Work force (2000, 4.4 million):
Agriculture--44%; industry--26%; services--31% (1989 est.).

Source: The CIA World Factbook (

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